Latar Belakang PDK Selayang

PDK Selayang (Pusat Pemulihan Dalam Komuniti Selayang) telah ditubuhkan pada 1hb Sept 1991, oleh sekumpulan ibubapa kepada kanak-kanak kurang upaya (pada masa tersebut dipanggil sebagai kanak-kanak istimewa) yang anak-anak mereka telah dikeluarkan dari pembelajaran wajib di sekolah-sekolah aliran perdana di Selayang, dengan alasan mereka (OKU tersebut) "tidak boleh belajar". Alasan sebenar Guru Besar sekolah-sekolah tersebut ialah mereka takut graf pencapaian sekolah akan menurun.

Bermula dengan 15 orang kanak-kanak kurang upaya kelas diadakan sekali seminggu pada setiap hari Sabtu dari jam 8:30 pagi hingga 1:00 tengahari, dengan dilatih oleh seorang Petugas PDK (panggilan Cikgu PDK pada masa tersebut) iaitu Puan Noraini Othman.

Hari ini PDK Selayang telah berkembang pesat dengan jumlah pelatih OKU PDK seramai 102 orang melalui beberapa program iaitu Kelas Harian EIP, Kelas Harian LPV, Kelas Harian Pemulihan Perubatan (Pemulihan Anggota, Pemulihan Pertuturan dan Pemulihan Carakerja), Lawatan ke Rumah dan Program Rumah Kelompok (lelaki).

Kumpulan Sasar Utama: OKU (Orang Kurang Upaya)

Kumpulan Sasar Tambahan: Anak-Anak Yatim, Kanak-Kanak Kurang Bernasib Baik, Ibu Tunggal/Ibu Tinggal, Warga Emas dan Keluarga Miskin (dari lingkungan kumpulan sasar utama)

Kelas Harian EIP: 5 hari/minggu; Isnin-Jumaat; 8:30am-12:30pm.

Kelas Harian LPV (Latihan Pemulihan Vokasional): 5 hari/minggu; Isnin-Jumaat; 9:00am- 5:00pm.

Kelas harian Pemulihan Perubatan pula dijalankan seperti berikut:

Pemulihan Anggota: 5 hari/minggu; 8:30-11:30am; untuk OKU dari keluarga miskin dan berpendapatan rendah. Sabtu & Ahad pula dikhaskan kepada OKU yang keluarganya mampu bayar penuh kos pakar (OKU dari keluarga kaya).

Pemulihan Pertuturan: 3 hari/minggu 8:30am- 12:00pm; untuk OKU dari keluarga berpendapan rendah dan miskin dan hari 2 hari dalam seminggu dikhaskan untuk OKU dari keluarga kaya yang mampu membayar kos pakar.

Pemulihan Carakerja: 4 hari/minggu; Isnin-Jumaat kecuali Khamis; 8:30-11:30am; untuk pelatih kanak-kanak; 2:30-4:00pm untuk pelatih remaja PDK.

Program Lawatan ke Rumah: 2 kali/minggu; Selasa (2:00-4:00 petang) dan Sabtu (9:30am-12:30pm).

Program Rumah Kelompok (Lelaki): menempatkan seramai 4 OKU yang telah bekerja.

PDK Selayang yang ditadbir-urus oleh satu Jawatankuasa yang dilantik oleh ibubapa/penjaga OKU.

PDK Selayang dipengerusikan oleh Y. Bhg. Dato' Prof. Ir. Dr Haji Azhari Md Salleh, dengan kekuatan Jawatankuasa seramai 13 orang.

Seramai 15 kakitangan berkhidmat di PDK Selayang yang diketuai oleh Penyelia PDK iaitu Puan Noraini Othman, 8 orang Petugas PDK, 3 orang Pakar Pemulihan Perubatan, 1 orang Pemandu dan 3 orang Pembantu. 3 orang kakitangan PDK Selayang adalah dari kalangan OKU.

Thursday, September 22, 2011

medical Study : Lung cancer linked to risk of stroke

REUTERS - People recently diagnosed with lung cancer are at a higher risk of having a stroke than those without lung tumours, according to a Taiwanese study.
Lung Cancer
Xray image of lung cancer
Researchers at China Medical University looked at data covering more than 150,000 adults and found that among those with lung cancer, 26 in every 1,000 experienced a stroke every year, compared with 17 in 1,000 who did not have cancer.

Lifestyle issues that might influence stroke risk -- such as smoking, drinking or diet -- were not factored in, said Fung-Chang Sung, senior author of the study, which was published in the journal Stroke.

Couse of cancer

Type of Cancer Risk factors
lung cancer cigarette smoking; exposure to asbestos, uranium and nickel
skin cancer excessive exposure to the sun, tanning salons
breast cancer familial history - genetics
cervix cancer human papilloma virus exposure
colon and rectum high fat diet, low fiber
oral cancer alcohol plus smoking, smokeless tobacco
urinary bladder aniline dye exposure, cigarette smoking,
exposure to parasite Schistosoma haematobium
leukemia exposure to benzene, ionizing radiation

Still, the risk was highest during the first three months after a lung cancer diagnosis for men and during the first four-to-six months for women.

"Lung cancer is associated with increased risk of subsequent stroke within one year after diagnosis for men and two years after diagnosis for women," Sung and colleagues wrote, adding that the risk subsequently decreased after that period of time.

Chart below show us the % of mortality of cancer patient:

Cancer Type Estimated
New Cases
Estimated
Deaths
Percent
Mortality
Skin (non-melanoma) >1,000,000 <1,000 0.1%
Lung (Including Bronchus) 215,020 161,840 75%
Prostate 186,320 28,660 15%
Breast (Female) 182,460 40,480 22%
Colon and Rectal (Combined) 148,810 49,960 34%
Bladder 68,810 14,100 20%
Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma 66,120 19,160 29%
Melanoma 62,480 8,420 13%
Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer 46,232 11,059 24%
Leukemia (All) 44,270 21,710 49%
Endometrial 40,100 7,470 19%
Pancreatic 37,680 34,290 91%
Thyroid 37,340 1,590 4%


The researchers also found that a less common type of stroke -- hemorrhagic stroke, caused by sudden bleeding into the brain -- occurred more often among the lung cancer patients than ischemic stroke, which is usually caused by a clot blocking blood flow to brain tissue.

Some evidence suggests that excessive bleeding and blood clots, both of which can be caused by tumours, as well as chemotherapy side effects, could partly explain the apparent link between cancer and stroke, researchers note.

"The most common type of lung cancer, adenocarcinoma, increases the body's propensity to form blood clots, even more so than other types of cancer," said Andrew Russman, a stroke specialist at the Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit, who was not a part of the study.

More than 52,000 people with lung cancer and more than 104,000 people without lung cancer were selected from a nationwide health insurance database.

Most of the study population was blue-collar workers such as farmers, fishermen and vendors, who tended to have high blood pressure, diabetes and heart disease.

"There's a higher rate of high blood pressure and diabetes and pulmonary disease in patients with lung cancer," Russman said.
what's up doc

"I think this reflects the heavy burden of smoking and smoking-related risk factors in the population."
According to the American Lung Association, smoking is directly responsible for approximately 90 percent of lung cancer deaths, while the American Heart Association said in a report that strokes accounted for one of out eighteen deaths in the United States in 2007.

"In the U.S., smokers have twice the risk of having a stroke, regardless of lung cancer," Russman said.

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