Latar Belakang PDK Selayang

SEJARAH PENUBUHAN:

PDK Selayang (Pusat Pemulihan Dalam Komuniti Selayang) telah ditubuhkan pada 1hb Sept 1991, oleh sekumpulan ibubapa kepada kanak-kanak kurang upaya (pada masa tersebut dipanggil sebagai kanak-kanak istimewa) yang anak-anak mereka telah dikeluarkan dari pembelajaran wajib di sekolah-sekolah aliran perdana di Selayang, dengan alasan mereka (OKU tersebut) "tidak boleh belajar". Alasan sebenar Guru Besar sekolah-sekolah tersebut ialah mereka takut graf pencapaian sekolah akan menurun.

Bermula dengan 15 orang kanak-kanak kurang upaya kelas diadakan sekali seminggu pada setiap hari Sabtu dari jam 8:30 pagi hingga 1:00 tengahari, dengan dilatih oleh seorang Petugas PDK (panggilan Cikgu PDK pada masa tersebut) iaitu Puan Noraini Othman.

Hari ini PDK Selayang telah berkembang pesat dengan jumlah pelatih OKU PDK seramai 102 orang melalui beberapa program iaitu Kelas Harian EIP, Kelas Harian LPV, Kelas Harian Pemulihan Perubatan (Pemulihan Anggota, Pemulihan Pertuturan dan Pemulihan Carakerja), Lawatan ke Rumah dan Program Rumah Kelompok (lelaki).

Kumpulan Sasar Utama:
OKU (Orang Kurang Upaya)

Kumpulan Sasar Tambahan:
Anak-Anak Yatim, Kanak-Kanak Kurang Bernasib Baik, Ibu Tunggal/Ibu Tinggal, Warga Emas dan Keluarga Miskin (dari lingkungan kumpulan sasar utama)

Kelas Harian EIP:
5 hari/minggu; Isnin-Jumaat; 8:30am-12:30pm.

Kelas Harian LPV (Latihan Pemulihan Vokasional):
5 hari/minggu; Isnin-Jumaat; 9:00am- 4:00pm.

Kelas harian Pemulihan Perubatan pula dijalankan seperti berikut:

Pemulihan Anggota:
3 hari/minggu; Isnin, Rabu danJumaat; 8:30-11:30am; untuk OKU dari keluarga miskin dan berpendapatan rendah.

Sabtu & Ahad pula dikhaskan kepada OKU yang keluarganya mampu bayar penuh kos pakar (OKU dari keluarga kaya).

Pemulihan Pertuturan:
2 hari/minggu, Rabu dan Jumaat 8:30am- 12:00pm; untuk OKU dari keluarga berpendapan rendah dan miskin dan hari 2 hari dalam seminggu dikhaskan untuk OKU dari keluarga kaya yang mampu membayar kos pakar.

Pemulihan Carakerja:
3 hari/minggu; Isnin, Rabu dan Jumaat; 8:30-11:30am; untuk pelatih kanak-kanak; 2:30-4:00pm untuk pelatih remaja PDK.

Program Lawatan ke Rumah:
2 kali/minggu; Selasa (2:00-4:00 petang) dan Sabtu (9:30am-12:30pm). Berdasarkan keperluan dan persetujuan dari ibubapa/penjaga untuk kehadiran Petugas PDK di kediaman mereka.

Program Rumah Kelompok (Lelaki):
Menempatkan seramai 4 OKU yang telah bekerja. (telah ditamatkan pada Januari 2015)

Pengurusan:
PDK Selayang yang ditadbir-urus oleh satu Jawatankuasa yang dilantik oleh ibubapa/penjaga OKU.

PDK Selayang dipengerusikan oleh Y. Bhg. Dato' Ir. Dr Haji Azhari Md Salleh, dengan kekuatan Jawatankuasa seramai 13 orang, (sila lihat
side menu).

Kakitangan:
Seramai 15 kakitangan berkhidmat di PDK Selayang yang diketuai oleh Penyelia PDK iaitu Puan Noraini Othman, (sila lihat
side menu).


Thursday, October 31, 2013

Kota Kinabalu from Tang Dynasty Park

Kota Kinabalu Town





Pulau Gaya Fishing Village

Masjid Jamek Pulau Gaya

Pulau Gaya (Gaya Island) from bird view

Wednesday, October 30, 2013

Bladder Cancer Survival Rates

Bladder Cancer Survival Rates

Survival rates are closely tied to the stage at diagnosis. About half of  bladder cancers are caught when the disease is confined to the inner lining of the bladder. Nearly 100% of these people will live at least five years, compared to people without bladder cancer. The more advanced the cancer, the lower this figure becomes. But keep in mind that these rates are based on people diagnosed from 1988 to 2001. 

Complementary Approaches

Currently, no complementary treatments are known to treat or prevent bladder cancer, but research is ongoing. Studies are looking at whether extracts of green tea or broccoli sprouts may help in treating people with bladder cancer.
green tea

Living With Bladder Cancer

Cancer is a life-changing experience. And although there's no surefire way of preventing a recurrence, you can take steps to feel and stay healthy. Eating plenty of fruits, veggies, whole grains, and keeping to modest portions of lean meat is a great start. If you smoke, stop. Limit alcohol to one or two drinks a day, if you drink. Daily exercise and regular checkups will also support your health and give you peace of mind.

New and Experimental Treatments

Several new treatments may prove useful in treating bladder cancer. Photodynamic therapy, used in early stage cancers, uses a laser light to activate a chemical that kills cancer cells. Some gene therapies use lab-created viruses to fight cancer. And targeted therapies aim to control the growth of cancer cells. You may be eligible to participate in a clinical trial of these or other cutting-edge treatments.

biomedical illustration of nanovectors

Bladder Cancer Treatments

Treatment: Surgery

Transurethral surgery is most often done for early-stage cancers. If cancer has invaded more of the bladder, the surgeon will most likely perform either a partial cystectomy, removing a portion of the bladder, or a radical cystectomy, to remove the entire bladder. For men, the prostate and urethra may also be removed. For women, the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and part of the vagina may also be removed

illustration of bladder cancer surgery


Treatment: After Surgery

If your entire bladder must be removed, your surgeon will construct another means of storing and passing urine. A piece of your intestine may be used to create a tube that allows urine to flow into an external urostomy bag. In some cases, an internal reservoir -- drained via a catheter -- can be constructed. Newer surgeries offer the possibility of normal urination through the creation of an artificial bladder.

illustration of catheter


Treatment: Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy involves drugs designed to kill cancer cells. These drugs may be given before surgery to shrink tumors, making them easier to remove. Chemotherapy is also used to destroy any cancer cells left after surgery and to lower the chances that the cancer will return. Hair loss, nausea, loss of appetite, and fatigue are common side effects. The drugs can be given by vein or directly into the bladder.

chemotherapy treatment


Treatment: Immunotherapy

This type of treatment is delivered directly to your bladder, so it doesn’t treat cancer that has spread beyond it. One treatment, Bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy, sends in helpful bacteria through a catheter. It triggers your immune system to attack the cancer. Flu-like symptoms are a common side effect of the once-a-week treatment. Immunotherapy may be used after surgery to reduce the risk of recurrence.

tuberculosis bacteria infecting white blood cell


Treatment: Radiation

Radiation uses invisible, high-energy beams, like X-rays, to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. It's most often given from outside the body by machine. Radiation is often used in tandem with other treatments, such as chemotherapy and surgery. For people who can't undergo surgery, it may be the main treatment. Side effects can include nausea, fatigue, skin irritation, diarrhea, and pain when urinating.

screenshot of a radiotherapy treatment plan



Stages of Bladder Cancer

Stages of Bladder Cancer

Stage 0: Cancer stays in the inner lining.

Stage I: Cancer has spread to the bladder wall.

Stage II: Cancer has reached the muscle of the bladder wall.

Stage III: Cancer has spread to fatty tissue around the bladder.

Stage IV: Cancer has spread to the pelvic or abdominal wall, lymph nodes, or distant sites such as bone, liver, or lungs.

illustration showing stages of bladder cancer









Types of Bladder Cancer

Types of Bladder Cancer

The main types of bladder cancer are named for the type of cells that become cancerous. The most common is transitional cell carcinoma, which begins in the cells that line the inside of the bladder. Squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma are much less common.

micrograph of bladder cancer



Bladder Cancer : Diagnosis

Diagnosis: Testing

There's no routine test for bladder cancer. But if you're at high risk or have symptoms, your doctor may first order a urine test. If needed, a procedure called cystoscopy lets your doctor see inside the bladder with a slender lighted tube with a camera on the end. The cystoscope can be used to remove small tissue samples (a biopsy) to be examined under a microscope. A biopsy is the best way to diagnose cancer.

cystoscopy illustration


Diagnosis: Imaging

If cancer is found, imaging tests can show whether it has spread beyond the bladder. Anintravenous pyelogram uses dye to outline the kidneys, bladder, and ureters, the tubes that carry urine to the bladder. CT and MRI scansgive more detailed images of these, and can show the lymph nodes nearby. An ultrasounduses sound waves, instead of radiation, to produce images. Additional imaging tests look for cancer in the lungs and bone.

image of pyelogram




Risk Factor of Bladder Cancer, Leading by Smoking

Risk Factor: Smoking

Although the exact causes of bladder cancer remain unknown, smoking is the leading risk factor. Smokers are about four times more likely to get bladder cancer than people who have never smoked. Chemicals in tobacco smoke are carried from the lungs to the bloodstream, then filtered by the kidneys into urine. This concentrates harmful chemicals in the bladder, where they damage cells that can give rise to cancer.

burning cigarette


Risk Factor: Chemical Exposure

Research suggests that certain jobs may increase your risk for bladder cancer. Metal workers, mechanics, and hairdressers are among those who may be exposed to cancer-causing chemicals. If you work with dyes, or in the making of rubber, textiles, leather, or paints, be sure to follow safety procedures to reduce contact with dangerous chemicals. Smoking further increases risk from chemical exposure.

mechanic in dirty shirt

Other Risk Factors

Anyone can get bladder cancer, but these factors put you at greater risk:
  • Gender: Men are three times more likely to get bladder cancer.
  • Age: Nine out of 10 cases occur over age 55.
  • Race: Whites have twice the risk of African-Americans.



Warning Sign of Bladder Cancer

Warning Sign: Blood in Urine

Blood in the urine can be a sign of bladder cancer, either visible to the eye or picked up by routine testing. The urine may look darker than usual, brownish, or (rarely) bright red. Most commonly, blood in the urine is not caused by cancer, but by other causes. These include exercise, trauma, infections, blood or kidney disorders, or drugs, such as blood thinners.  

x-ray of cancerous bladder tumor

Warning Sign: Bladder Changes

Bladder symptoms are more likely to come from conditions other than cancer. But bladder cancer can sometimes cause changes to bladder habits, including:
  • Needing to go, with little or no results
  • Having to go more often than usual
  • Painful urination
  • Difficulty urinating

What Is Bladder Cancer?

What Is Bladder Cancer?

Cancer is the growth of abnormal cells in the body. Bladder cancer typically begins in the inner lining of the bladder, the organ that stores urine after it passes from the kidneys. Most bladder cancers are caught early, when treatments are highly successful and the disease has not spread beyond the bladder. But bladder cancer tends to come back, so regular check-ups are important.


illustration of bladder cancer

Wednesday, October 16, 2013

PDK Selayang : MSU Sumbangkan Daging Korban Kepada PDK Selayang

Program : MSU@Korban 1434H
Tarikh : 15hb Oktober 2013 (Selasa-Hari Pertama Eidul-Adha)
Masa : 1:00 - 4:00 pm
Tempat : MSU (Management & Science University)
Antara Penerima : PDK Selayang
Jumlah Sumbangan : 20kg (untuk PDK Selayang Sahaja)
Jumlah Korban : 24 ekor lembu.

Jawatankuasa PDK Selayang kemudiannya menyampaikan sumbangan tersebut kepada 20 keluarga miskin di bawah naungan Unit Asnaf PDK Selayang. Setiap satu keluarga menerima 1 kg daging lembu korban sumbangan dari MSU tersebut.

Jawatankuasa PDK Selayang mengucapkan ribuan terima kasih bagi pehak keluarga penerima daging korban tersebut kepada MSU.


Tuesday, October 15, 2013

Pandu Laju : Kami Perlukan 120km/j Untuk Follow Bas Ekspress Ini

Kami perlukan 120km/j untuk follow bas ini sejauh 13km di Lebuhraya Utara Selatan, dari sebelum susur keluar Senawang/Seremban (KM 251) hingga ke hampiri kawasan R & R Seremban arah utara (KM 264);

Lepas tu kami xleh ikut dah cukuplah setakat 13km tu kami memandu 120km/j, 

Cuba bayangkan, dalam keadaan kenderaan banyak begitu pemandu tersebut boleh memandu selaju 120km/j; kalau Hiway kosong, bolehlah bagi dia jawatan pemandu bas roket.

Agaknya berapa Company bas ni bayar kepada pemandu ini untuk langgar peraturan jalanraya untuk:

1) Memandu Laju Ikut Suka Hatinya.
2) Undang-Undang Jalanraya Dibuat Untuk Dilanggar
3) Nyawa Penumpang Dalam Tanganku Bukan Dalam Tangan Tuhan (sebab SPAD kata nak buat pendekatan keagamaan dan ketuhanan dalam mendidik pemandu tahun ini)
4) Aku ada insurans! Ko ade!? PA lagi (PA-Personel Accident) (dalam perkataan lain PA bermakna Jemputan [Insurans] untuk Accident; kalau tak accident mana boleh claim, JADI NAK CLAIM KENALAH ACCIDENT; tak gitu. {tu sebab banyak accident kooooottttt}........

SEBAB-SEBABNYA:
1) Aku Ada Share Dengan Menteri Pengangkutan Ape
2) JPJ Adalah Bapak Saudaraku.
3) Towke Bas Mak Saudaraku.
4) SPAD!!? Alaaa Anak Buah Aku

Jadi Sila lihat 16 photo di bawah, sebagai bukti perkara-perkara di atas:

















Thursday, October 10, 2013

Alamat PDK Ara Damansara

PDK Ara (Damansara / Lembah Subang).

No. 93-G, Jalan PJU 1A/41B,
Pusat Dagangan NZX Ara Jaya,
47301 Petaling Jaya

Tel : +603-7883 0362.

Pengerusi: Puan Hajjah Noor Yasmin Abdul Karim
h/p : +6012-377 2431.

Mesyuarat Panel Penilai Pelatih PDK-PDK Daerah Gombak Sesi 2/2013 (Hari Kedua)

Tarikh : 9hb Oktober 2013
Masa : 9:00am-3:00pm
Tempat : PDK Hulu Kelang
Tujuan : Penilaian Kesihatan Fizikal dan Mental Pelatih-Pelatih PDK

Kehadiran:

1) Timbalan PKMD Daerah Gombak.
2) Doktor dari Pejabat Kesihatan Daerah Gombak
3) Pegawai Penyelaras PDK VDaerah Gombak
4) Naib Pengerusi II PDK Selayang
5) Setiausaha PDK Hulu Kelang
6) Jawatankuasa PDK Hulu Kelang

Turut Hadir:

Penyelia PDK Selayang
Penyelia PDK Hulu Kelang
Penyelia PDK Sri Kundang
Penyelia PDK KAMII Gombak Setia
Penyelia PDK Taman Seri Gombak

Jumlah Pelatih Yang Dinilai:

a) PDK Selayang - 2 orang
b) PDK Hulu Kelang - 6 orang
c) PDK Sri Kundang - 1 orang
d) PDK KAMII Gombak Setia - 5 orang
e) PDK Taman Seri Gombak - 3 orang