Latar Belakang PDK Selayang

PDK Selayang (Pusat Pemulihan Dalam Komuniti Selayang) telah ditubuhkan pada 1hb Sept 1991, oleh sekumpulan ibubapa kepada kanak-kanak kurang upaya (pada masa tersebut dipanggil sebagai kanak-kanak istimewa) yang anak-anak mereka telah dikeluarkan dari pembelajaran wajib di sekolah-sekolah aliran perdana di Selayang, dengan alasan mereka (OKU tersebut) "tidak boleh belajar". Alasan sebenar Guru Besar sekolah-sekolah tersebut ialah mereka takut graf pencapaian sekolah akan menurun.

Bermula dengan 15 orang kanak-kanak kurang upaya kelas diadakan sekali seminggu pada setiap hari Sabtu dari jam 8:30 pagi hingga 1:00 tengahari, dengan dilatih oleh seorang Petugas PDK (panggilan Cikgu PDK pada masa tersebut) iaitu Puan Noraini Othman.

Hari ini PDK Selayang telah berkembang pesat dengan jumlah pelatih OKU PDK seramai 102 orang melalui beberapa program iaitu Kelas Harian EIP, Kelas Harian LPV, Kelas Harian Pemulihan Perubatan (Pemulihan Anggota, Pemulihan Pertuturan dan Pemulihan Carakerja), Lawatan ke Rumah dan Program Rumah Kelompok (lelaki).

Kumpulan Sasar Utama: OKU (Orang Kurang Upaya)

Kumpulan Sasar Tambahan: Anak-Anak Yatim, Kanak-Kanak Kurang Bernasib Baik, Ibu Tunggal/Ibu Tinggal, Warga Emas dan Keluarga Miskin (dari lingkungan kumpulan sasar utama)

Kelas Harian EIP: 5 hari/minggu; Isnin-Jumaat; 8:30am-12:30pm.

Kelas Harian LPV (Latihan Pemulihan Vokasional): 5 hari/minggu; Isnin-Jumaat; 9:00am- 5:00pm.

Kelas harian Pemulihan Perubatan pula dijalankan seperti berikut:

Pemulihan Anggota: 5 hari/minggu; 8:30-11:30am; untuk OKU dari keluarga miskin dan berpendapatan rendah. Sabtu & Ahad pula dikhaskan kepada OKU yang keluarganya mampu bayar penuh kos pakar (OKU dari keluarga kaya).

Pemulihan Pertuturan: 3 hari/minggu 8:30am- 12:00pm; untuk OKU dari keluarga berpendapan rendah dan miskin dan hari 2 hari dalam seminggu dikhaskan untuk OKU dari keluarga kaya yang mampu membayar kos pakar.

Pemulihan Carakerja: 4 hari/minggu; Isnin-Jumaat kecuali Khamis; 8:30-11:30am; untuk pelatih kanak-kanak; 2:30-4:00pm untuk pelatih remaja PDK.

Program Lawatan ke Rumah: 2 kali/minggu; Selasa (2:00-4:00 petang) dan Sabtu (9:30am-12:30pm).

Program Rumah Kelompok (Lelaki): menempatkan seramai 4 OKU yang telah bekerja.

PDK Selayang yang ditadbir-urus oleh satu Jawatankuasa yang dilantik oleh ibubapa/penjaga OKU.

PDK Selayang dipengerusikan oleh Y. Bhg. Dato' Prof. Ir. Dr Haji Azhari Md Salleh, dengan kekuatan Jawatankuasa seramai 13 orang.

Seramai 15 kakitangan berkhidmat di PDK Selayang yang diketuai oleh Penyelia PDK iaitu Puan Noraini Othman, 8 orang Petugas PDK, 3 orang Pakar Pemulihan Perubatan, 1 orang Pemandu dan 3 orang Pembantu. 3 orang kakitangan PDK Selayang adalah dari kalangan OKU.

Monday, March 17, 2014

Gallstones

Gallstones form in the gallbladder, a small organ located under the liver. The gallbladder aids in the digestive process by storing bile and secreting it into the small intestine when food enters. Bile is a fluid produced by the liver and is made up of several substances, including cholesterol, bilirubin, and bile salts.

What Are Gallstones?

Gallstones are pieces of solid material that form in the gallbladder. These stones develop because cholesterol and pigments in bile sometimes form hard particles.
The two main types of gallstones are:
  • Cholesterol stones: Usually yellow-green in color, approximately 80% of gallstones are cholesterol stones.
  • Pigment stones: These stones are smaller and darker and are made up of bilirubin.
Gallstones

What Causes Gallstones?

Several factors may come together to create gallstones, including:
  • Genetics
  • Body weight
  • Decreased motility (movement) of the gallbladder
  • Diet
Gallstones can form when there is an imbalance in the substances that make up bile. For instance, cholesterol stones may develop as a result of too much cholesterol in the bile. Another cause may be the inability of the gallbladder to empty properly.
Pigment stones are more common in people with certain medical conditions, such as cirrhosis (a liver disease in which scar tissue replaces healthy liver tissue) or blood diseases such as sickle cell anemia.

What Are the Risk Factors for Gallstones?

Risk factors for getting gallstones include:
  • Genetics. If other people in your family have had gallstones, you are at increased risk of developing gallstones.
  • Obesity. This is one of the biggest risk factors. Obesity can cause a rise in cholesterol and can also keep the gallbladder from emptying completely.
  • Estrogen. Estrogen can increase cholesterol and reduce gallbladder motility. Women who are pregnant or who take birth control pills or hormone replacement therapy have higher levels of estrogen and may be more likely to develop gallstones.
  • Ethnic background. Certain ethnic groups, including Native Americans and Mexican-Americans, are more likely to develop gallstones.
  • Gender and age. Gallstones are more common among women and older people.
  • Cholesterol drugs. Some cholesterol-lowering drugs increase the amount of cholesterol in bile, which may increase the chances of developing cholesterol stones.
  • Diabetes. People with diabetes tend to have higher levels of triglycerides (a type of blood fat), which is a risk factor for gallstones.
  • Rapid weight loss. If a person loses weight too quickly, his or her liver secretes extra cholesterol, which may lead to gallstones. Also, fasting may cause the gallbladder to contract less.

What Are the Symptoms of Gallstones?

Gallstones often don't cause symptoms. Those that don't are called "silent stones." A person usually learns he or she has gallstones while being examined for another illness.
When symptoms do appear, they may include:
  • Pain in the upper abdomen and upper back. The pain may last for several hours.
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Other gastrointestinal problems, including bloating, indigestion and heartburn, and gas

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