Transurethral surgery is most often done for early-stage cancers. If cancer has invaded more of the bladder, the surgeon will most likely perform either a partial cystectomy, removing a portion of the bladder, or a radical cystectomy, to remove the entire bladder. For men, the prostate and urethra may also be removed. For women, the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and part of the vagina may also be removed
Treatment: After Surgery
If your entire bladder must be removed, your surgeon will construct another means of storing and passing urine. A piece of your intestine may be used to create a tube that allows urine to flow into an external urostomy bag. In some cases, an internal reservoir -- drained via a catheter -- can be constructed. Newer surgeries offer the possibility of normal urination through the creation of an artificial bladder.
Chemotherapy involves drugs designed to kill cancer cells. These drugs may be given before surgery to shrink tumors, making them easier to remove. Chemotherapy is also used to destroy any cancer cells left after surgery and to lower the chances that the cancer will return. Hair loss, nausea, loss of appetite, and fatigue are common side effects. The drugs can be given by vein or directly into the bladder.
This type of treatment is delivered directly to your bladder, so it doesn’t treat cancer that has spread beyond it. One treatment, Bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy, sends in helpful bacteria through a catheter. It triggers your immune system to attack the cancer. Flu-like symptoms are a common side effect of the once-a-week treatment. Immunotherapy may be used after surgery to reduce the risk of recurrence.
Radiation uses invisible, high-energy beams, like X-rays, to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. It's most often given from outside the body by machine. Radiation is often used in tandem with other treatments, such as chemotherapy and surgery. For people who can't undergo surgery, it may be the main treatment. Side effects can include nausea, fatigue, skin irritation, diarrhea, and pain when urinating.